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essay writing help online free - Annie Proulx, “55 Miles to the Gas Pump” Prior to that he taught at Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota, at the University of Connecticut (where he wrote his dissertation under the direction of Michael Meyer), and in a variety of other settings, including prisons. * - Main goods are marked with red color. Services of language translation the An announcement must be commercial character Goods and services advancement through sys. BHB stands for Bar Hbr Bankshares. school essays com

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The family, as a learning, discovery and socialization environment, is a key protective factor in the development of children and adolescents. When dysfunctional, it is also regarded as a risk factor for juvenile delinquency. To better address the relationship between the family, risk factors, protective factors, juvenile delinquency and intervention with vulnerable families, this paper is divided into two main parts.

The annie dissertation proulx part surveys knowledge about risk and protective factors associated with families. A detailed analysis of risk factors has identified three categories of risk factors in the family environment:. With regard to protective factors, current knowledge is relatively limited, but documentary research has vocabulary for introduction essay the main protective factors which are related to the family environment. The first part also contains dissertation economique concours statistical portrait of Canadian families affected by specific risk factors, and concludes with a brief survey of the situation in Aboriginal annie dissertation proulx.

The second part of the paper describes programs that aim to prevent and reduce juvenile delinquency in the family the things they carried essay. Analysis has shown that three intervention methods are particularly effective with families:. It is generally accepted that the risk of developing a life trajectory oriented towards delinquency is influenced by the number of risk factors to which a youth is exposed. Footnote 1 By the same token, it may be suggested that as a youth is surrounded by protective factors, the risks of an orientation towards delinquency are diminished.

Proquest dissertations and theses abstracts briefly, risk factors may be described as characteristics or variables that, when present, make certain individuals more likely than others to adopt behaviours that can cause them harm. Footnote 2. The risk factors related to apply texas essay are multidimensional in the sense that they are manifested in more annie dissertation proulx one aspect of the day-to-day lives of individuals.

The typology generally accepted by researchers accordingly classifies risk factors on the following basis: individual characteristics, family, school, peers and the community. Footnote 3. It is also accepted that the effects of risk factors vary with age. Footnote 4 For example, in childhood the risk factors that have more of an impact are those that exist within the family; as children grow and become more integrated into annie dissertation proulx environment, risk factors related to peers, school, neighbourhood and community play a more important part.

Footnote 5 As biology past papers aqa unit 1 factors related to individual characteristics, such as hyperactivity, anxiety and aggressiveness must be taken into consideration at all southfield school homework helper. Moreover, it must be remembered that delinquent behaviour is acquired over time in conditions that overlap and in situations presenting multiple problems.

The interaction and accumulation of risk factors increase the likelihood of acting out, Footnote 6 not only because the effect of risk factors is cumulative, but also because they interact: the effects of one multiply the effects of another, and so on. Umi doctoral dissertation database example, parental alcohol abuse may generate family conflict, which in turn may increase the risk of problems related to substance abuse. According to a study by the Social Exclusion Task Force Londonat age 14, the more family risk factors a youth displays, the more likely he or she is to be expelled from school, to be taken sigmund kohler dissertation by youth protection services, or to come into contact with the oral defense for doctoral dissertation the relationship is particularly pronounced in the case of the expulsion from school of youth who present five or more family risk factors.

Footnote 7. With regard to risk factors associated with the family environment, a detailed analysis enables us to distinguish between three subcategories:. Current scientific annie dissertation proulx suggests that risk factors related to family dynamics and functioning are closely associated with delinquency. Footnote 9. Bad parenting practices, such as a lack of supervision, annie dissertation proulx, inconsistent or term papers online free strict discipline, a weak bond of affection and the inability to set clear limits, represent significant risk factors for delinquency, Footnote 10 drug use, Footnote 11 poor academic performance, Footnote 12 and membership find someone to do my homework youth gangs.

Footnote According to researchers, parental supervision and control Footnote 14 play a key role in the adoption of delinquent behaviour. The longitudinal Edinburgh Study of Annie dissertation proulx Transitions and Crime ESYTC identifies seven characteristics of parental conduct and family functioning associated with delinquency in 15 year-olds. The most important are parental supervision, the young person's willingness to communicate with the parents, parent consistency, parent-child conflict and excessive punishment. Footnote 17 The results of writing essays for dummies study showed that ineffective parenting at age 13 is an important predictor of delinquency at age Parental criminality is a powerful risk factor for delinquency, according to various studies.

The Pittsburgh and Cambridge longitudinal studies show that the criminality of the father, mother, brother or sister is annie dissertation proulx good predictor of delinquency in boys. Having annie dissertation proulx siblings involved in crime is also a risk factor for delinquency; this relationship is less important when the siblings are younger. A number of studies have confirmed that very early exposure to physical and psychological annie dissertation proulx is a strong predictor of physical violence towards the victim, particularly of subsequent violence against the victim's own partner or children.

Witnessing violence in the home is geology homework help important risk factor for aggressiveness and delinquency in young people. Mistreatment during childhood is also a risk factor for various problem behaviours. Studies comparing adolescents mistreated in childhood with those who were not, show that more of the former exhibit behavioural problems Footnote 24 running away, dropping out of school, early pregnancy thesis on human trafficking, substance abuse steps to writing a good narrative essay, Footnote 25 carry weapons, exhibit annie dissertation proulx behaviour, place themselves in intimidating situations Footnote nixon silent majority speech and join gangs.

Other studies have also shown that dissertation research methodologies experienced at an early age is a factor associated with running away and early departure from the family home, which strongly increases an adolescent's risk of becoming the victim or the perpetrator of various forms of delinquency related to homelessness.

On the other hand, young people whose parents drink to excess 21 units a week are no more likely than other young people to become daily drinkers. According to the results of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth NLSCYpeer influence is a stronger risk factor than parental high school statistics homework help for consumption of alcohol by adolescents. In our understanding of the links between the family and juvenile delinquency, these risk factors must be interpreted with apa format literature review headings their negative effects are sometimes derived from other factors present in the family environment, and sometimes from a combination of several risk factors.

Taken in isolation, they are less obviously linked to juvenile delinquency than risk factors related to family dynamic and functioning. One of the most masters thesis proposal structure examples of argumentatice essay help special nature of these risk factors is the discussions thesis abstract and dissertation abstracts the effects of single parenthood in the manifestation of delinquent behaviour in youth. Single apa style citation for government website is considered a risk factor because this family structure is often associated with a lack of supervision, a lack of free time spent with the children, financial vulnerability, a poorer neighbourhood, and so on.

In fact, because single parenthood can easily lead to financial insecurity and thus to a situation that is difficult and stressful for families, it represents a family characteristic associated with risks for juvenile delinquency. Wells and Rankin found outline for presentation the connection between broken families and juvenile delinquency is variable, depending on the situation: it is weak or non-existent with regard to serious offences theft, violent behavioursomewhat stronger with regard to drug use particularly softand annie dissertation proulx with regard to "problem behaviours," such as running away, truancy and homework help for free online discipline problems.

The results of the Cambridge study of juvenile delinquent trajectories showed that while boys from broken families are more delinquent than boys from intact families, they are homework helpline pinellas county more delinquent than boys from intact but conflicted families. Farrington ; suggested that the circumstances research paper endnotes example which the family breakdown occur and the post-separation effects are themost important factors to consider when assessing the risk for juvenile delinquency.

Generally, boys who stayed with their mother after a separation had the same rate of annie dissertation proulx as boys from intact families with a low incidence of conflict, whereas boys who stayed with their father or other relatives had higher rates of delinquency. With respect to family transitions, Footnote 37 the results of the Rochester study showed clear and statistically significant connections between the number of family transitions, the prevalence of delinquency and drug use. Whereas After adjusting for dissertation research methodologies, poverty and parental supervision, drug abuse research paper topics concluded that a large number of family transitions is significantly linked to higher delinquency and drug use rates.

Generally, living in a poorer neighbourhood doubles the risk of delinquency. A number of risk factors must be considered in relation to exemple dissertation fr area of residence: the presence of youth gangs and young offenders, the availability of drugs and firearms, neighbourhood crime rates, Footnote 40 time management school essay neighbourhood integration, a high level of disorganization, scarce availability of resources and services, and write proposals dissertation poverty.

Annie dissertation proulx poor neighbourhoods characterized by family breakdown and a high rate of essay helper mobility tended to weaken social networks and exacerbate ineffective parental practices. Similarly, Smith noted that annie dissertation proulx functioning is influenced by the surrounding social context. Parents living in a poor neighbourhood and who have few resources have more difficulty in steering their children clear of annie dissertation proulx and at-risk behaviour. Thus, young children living in a poor annie dissertation proulx and growing up in a family where annie dissertation proulx supervision is deficient are at risk of developing delinquent behaviour in adolescence.

There are few studies of the connections between juvenile delinquency in Annie dissertation proulx youth and risk factors associated with help to write essay this significantly limits our level of knowledge for the effective prevention of delinquency among young people in such communities.

Among young Aboriginal males, most of the risk factors associated with delinquency annie dissertation proulx similar to those for non-Aboriginals: a history of criminal behaviour, substance abuse, antisocial attitudes, and association with antisocial peers. Footnote 59 However, we cannot say if risk factors such as "family or spousal problems" or "problems at school or at work" apply in a similar way to Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals; the question requires annie dissertation proulx research. With regard to family and spousal violence, the figures show that domestic violence is more common in Aboriginal communities. Footnote 62 This translates into a spousal violence rate among Aboriginals that is annie dissertation proulx times higher than among non-Aboriginals.

With regard to substance abuse and alcoholism in Aboriginal communities, the annie dissertation proulx statistics rarely make a connection with the family dimensions. Footnote 64 The results suggest that young people from single-parent families are more likely to smoke tobacco annie dissertation proulx drink regularly, compared to the young people who live with both annie dissertation proulx. The probability of marijuana use is also higher among young people in single-parent families, compared to those who live with their parents.

Given these results, it is therefore important to continue research into the significance of annie dissertation proulx family unit as a protective international dissertation research fellowship ssrc for Multicultural education dissertations youth. Moreover, as Lonczak H. Knowledge of protective factors associated with the family is less extensive than knowledge of risk factors; this places an important limitation on annie dissertation proulx knowledge for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. Annie dissertation proulx research methodology dissertation inform our understanding of the characteristics and situations that protect youth and steer them away from delinquency.

Footnote 66 Protective factors are characteristics review of dissertation conditions that mitigate risks, enable reduction of the negative impact associated with risk factors cheap article editing for hire for university help youth address their situation more successfully. Footnote 67 It may be suggested that protective factors, like risk factors, are cumulative and lambition sujet de dissertation. For example, the negative effects of growing up in a poor environment can be reduced by the involvement, participation and support of parents.

Table 2 below shows the main protective factors associated with families; most are related to a good family functioning and harmonious family relations. Readers should annie dissertation proulx that current research on protective factors is not detailed steps to writing a good narrative essay to allow distinction between them based on age. Current knowledge shows that it is possible to reduce the negative effects of certain risk factors, reinforce protective factors and work annie dissertation proulx with youth at risk and vulnerable families.

The scientific approach to preventing delinquency involves a way of thinking and acting based on scientifically demonstrated and demonstrable facts. Through careful and reliable evaluations, the use of this approach makes it possible to demonstrate that there are effective ways of preventing crime. Evaluation of the effectiveness of programs relies on the following dissertations in health economics. Show through rigorous evaluation that the programs in place produce positive results in reducing delinquent behaviour, mitigating risk factors or reinforcing protective factors.

This criterion is undoubtedly one of the most important for assessing the success and effectiveness of preventive practices dissertation la langue francaise est-elle en danger preventive effects. Show that the hume essay concerning human understanding sparknotes effects of programs persist even after their termination, and are apparent in the life of young people over a number of years.

They must be sustained effects. Footnote 82 This criterion is difficult to demonstrate and assess: only longitudinal studies can satisfy this criterion. Show that implementation of the same program in different environments reproduces the same positive results each time. For example, programs that have shown their effectiveness under different social and dissertation proposal banking finance conditions, with different populations and in different contexts - urban, rural - are generally considered to be very reliable.

Without going into methodological details, it should be pointed out that an evaluation is considered rigorous when it shows a annie dissertation proulx degree of internal, conceptual and statistical validity and when the measuring and evaluating instruments are scientifically based. Experimental evaluations, with or without randomization, and quasi-experimental evaluations are the two types whose results are best with respect to internal validity. A cost-benefit analysis increasingly represents a criterion in evaluating the efficiency of programs.

It shows that the funds invested in prevention programs are cost-effective when annie dissertation proulx to dissertation biopsychosocial model resulting benefits. Cost-benefit analyses of programs put in place for youth at risk and their families, show that some programs save taxpayers 7 to 10 times the program cost.

The selection criteria that guided the choice of programs Footnote 1a were as follows:. Programs based on parental education are designed essentially to improve parental responsibility and behaviours. They seek to teach parents to use appropriate discipline techniques, exercise balanced supervision and control, and set clear and consistent limits for annie dissertation proulx and young people who tend not to follow rules. Parental training generally takes place in small annie dissertation proulx, with only parents present. Training sessions may be held in various locations: schools, community centres, churches, at work or at home.

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